Aikido Techniques

A website is not the same as learning from a qualified instructor these are only here as an example not for you to try without training.You must go to an akido gym to practise with an instructor

Shino-nage (four direction throw). 1st form

This technique is the four direction projection as used in Japanese fencing. It involves

turning on the left and right foot and cutting in four directions. Your opponent grasps your right

wrist with his right hand. By making a spiral movement with your right hand, you then catch his

wrist. At the same time catch the back of his right hand with your left hand, breaking his balance

to his front. Do not lean backwards but keep your body slightly forward. Step through with your

left leg, keeping your legs slightly bent. Swivel on the ball of your foot and bend your opponent’s

arm backwards. Throw your opponent down.

Koto-gaeshi (small hand twist). 1st form Aikido Techniques

This technique is called the small hand twist. As your opponent catches your right wrist

with his right hand, grab the top of it with your left hand and at the same time turn ninety

degrees to your right. Keep your head looking in the same direction as you are going and your

partner will come round in a semi-circle. Now change your direction, going back with your leg.

Your right hand should push on the back of his right hand, throwing him. At all times try to keep

this a smooth action and use circular not angular movements. Maintain your own balance and in

no circumstances use shoulder strength to try to force the throw.

Irimi-nage (enter body projection). 1st form Aikido Techniques

Irimi-nage is the enter body projection (throw) and is a special technique of Aikido. When

your opponent catches your right wrist with his right hand, keep your right arm straight. Step in

with your left foot into his rear side, your left hand encircling his neck. You are now the centre

of the movement, and, stepping backwards with your right foot so that he is on the outside circle

pull him into your right shoulder. Hook your right hand under his chin and throw him down.

Most of the control comes from your grip on his neck. Try not to use strength catching him,

otherwise he will resist you more easily.

Kaiten-nage (spiral throw). 1st form Aikido Techniques

This technique is a spiral throw and involsves a circular movement. All techniques of

Aikido are circular and not angular. This is important to remember. When the opponent attacks

you for 1st form, step slightly back with your left leg. Your right hand follows your body, taking

his arm over his head as you escape backwards under his arm. Keep your hand in the same

position, push forward thus making an arc. At the same time you should catch his right wrist

with your left hand. With your right hand press upon his neck and roll him forward.

Simultaneously step into him with your left foot, keeping your posture upright.

Tentchi-nage (heaven and earth throw). 1st form Aikido Techniques

This is quaintly called the heaven and earth throw. As the opponent catches your right

wrist, cut off with your left hand and at the same time step with your left leg to his right back

corner, making sure you keep your left hand straight and pointing down to the earth. The right

foot is then moved with a zig-zag step to his right rear corner. Bring your right hand arm under

his chin and with your fingers of your right hand point directly upwards and throw him down.

Keep your posture upright and your balance correct.

Ikkyo (first principle). 1st form Aikido Techniques

As the opponent catches your right wrist with his right hand, move your left leg and hip

to the rear and lead him up bringing his arm back to his hand. At the same time, your left hand

catches him just above his elbow and pushing back over his head you direct him to the floor.

Then pin him down by kneeling with your left knee on his arm-pit. Place your right knee near

his wrist. Keep your arms straight and posture upright.

Nikkyo (second principle). 1st form Aikido Techniques

The first part of this technique is the same as Ikkyo. Step backwards and lead him to the

ground. But when coming back catch his fingers that are grasping your right wrist. Then apply

the lock by bearing down on the wrist. Simultaneously, move your body backwards. This

technique can be most painful to your partner and should not be applied too quickly in the early

stages. Even at advanced levels, care must be taken. Your partner should tap to indicate

submission as is done in the other martial arts. The moment he taps you should release the

application.

Sankyo (third principle). 1st form Aikido Techniques

When the opponent grasps your right wrist with his right hand step to your left side. Turn

your body move under his right arm, at the same time take his left hand with your right. Now

twist his right hand up and to the left, keeping the palm open. Move your hips to the left. Cut

his right hand down and grasping his elbow with your right hand direct him to the floor. Apply

the lock by keeping the elbow straight and face his body when pinning him on the mat.

Yonkyo (fourth principle). 1st form Aikido Techniques

The opponent grasps your right wrist. Turn as in Sanyo and catch his right hand with your

left. Twist his wrist with your right hand and put the bottom of your left forefinger on his right

pulse. Push upwards, making sure that his elbow than his shoulder, then cut his arm down to the

ground. At the same time, step forward with the left foot. Pin him down and release on

submission.

This concludes the fundamental techniques. Throws are often achieved in Aikido by

forcing an opponent to throw himself if he is to avoid having one of his limbs dislocated. This

is why it is particularly important for the beginner to practise carefully. The beginner will learn

to avoid locks by throwing himself but this may take some time to acquire.

12. Aikido Breakfalls Aikido Techniques

Aikido Ukemi (breakfalls) are similar to those in Judo. At all times they should be soft,

and your body should be kept like a ball. But unlike Judo at no time should one hit the mat with

your hand in order to soften the shock. In Judo, we argue that if you find it necessary to use

Ukemi in the street softening the blow by hitting the ground with your arm, you will only

succeed in hurting your arm. In Aikido we learn to roll when thrown so as to recover on one’s

feet.

Ukemi are important. You must remember that Aikido is not so much a sport as a fighting

art. Therefore, I believe that Ukemi are as important as other techniques. If your Ukemi become

proficient then you will follow your partner better because the fear of falling will have gone. This

will allow your mind to be calm and as the body always follows the mind in Aikido then it will

be more relaxed, giving you more speed and natural movement for your technique.

13. Aikido Posture Aikido Techniques

The posture in Aikido is in an oblique position. The reason for this is that you lessen the

area of attack and you are able to move more easily and with speed. Stand with your left foot

half a step forward as shown in the photograph. This is left Hamni. Right Hamni is the same

except that your right foot is half a step forward.

14. Advanced Aikido Techniques Aikido Techniques

Defence against a knife

Attack to the stomach

There are many ways in which you can be attacked with a knife but I am giving the most

basic technique for you to practise. With the practice of Aikido, the others will come more easily

to you.

Your partner lunges at you with the knife. Turn to the rear in a clockwise direction so that

your partner is kept moving. Step back with your left foot, at the same time catch the back of

his hand with your right hand and then throw him. As soon as he falls, lock his arm by placing

your right arm on his elbow. Walk around his head bringing him onto his stomach. Now put your

right knee on his neck and push his arm towards his head until he lets go of the knife.

Koky-nage from 11th form

Catching both of your wrists with his hands your partner comes in to you. Slightly bend

your elbows so as to break your partner’s power. Step in to him to stop him from pushing you

back and kneel down. Your left hand should be pushing out and down to the mat. Your right

hand goes down to your partner’s right foot and you can throw him easily. Make sure that the

small of your back is kept straight and your shoulders relaxed.

Shiho-nage (four direction) 6th form attack

Your partner attacks the side of your head. Step back to your right corner with your left

foot. Your left hand should guide his right. Your right hand attacks his face. Follow through with

your right hand, and catch his wrist with both hands then as in 1st form Shiho-nage step through

and throw him.

Nikkyo (second principle) 4th form attack

Your partner catches your wrist with his right hand. Step back to your right corner with

your left foot. Your right hand attacks his face. Follow through with the back of your hand

brushing down his arm. Your left hand catches your jacket above his hand and with your right

hand take hold under his hand. Now turn it over until his little finger is uppermost, making sure

that you keep it tight to your body. With your left elbow, bend his elbow and bear pressure on

his wrist until he submits by tapping.

Tentchi-nage (heaven and earth throw) 3rd form attack

As soon as your partner’s right hand catches your shoulder, turn to your right giving him

no chance to punch you with his right hand. Try to keep contact with his arm across your back.

Now with this movement, he should be moving on the outside of you. Change your direction by

stepping back with your left foot. Your left arm comes over the top of your partner’s right, with

a cutting action towards the mat. Your right foot makes a zig-zag step towards his rear and your

right arm pushes across his left shoulder. Keep your forward leg slightly bent and shoulders

relaxed.

Shiho-nage (four direction throw) 4th form

Your partner catches the front of your jacket with his right hand. Step back to your right

corner with your left foot. Attack your partner’s face with your right hand. Catch his wrist with

both hands. Now use your shoulder against the inside of his elbow joint. Step through with your

left leg. Turn completely around on the balls of your feet and kneel on your left knee. Your

partner’s arm should be bent backwards so as to break his balance.

Irimi-nage (enter body throw) 5th form

Your partner’s right hand attacks you to the centre of your head. Using your right hand

push straight towards him so as to deflect the blow. At the same time step into his rear side with

your left foot.

Your right hand should be on top of his right hand. Now cut down his right arm and catch

his neck with your left hand. Step right around with your right foot bringing him in a circle

outside you. Pull his head into your right shoulder and throw him down by bending his head

backwards with your right arm.

Sankyo (third principle) 6th form attack

Your partner attacks the side of your head with his right hand. Guide his right hand with

your left. At the same time step back to your right corner with your left leg. Attack his face with

your right hand. Follow on down his arm to grasp his wrist. Take his arm back in the direction

of his head simultaneously stepping to his front catching the back of his hand with your left

hand. Put your fingers in the palm of his hand and place your own thumb against his. Your right

hand comes down just above his elbow and leads him to the mat.

Shino-nage (four direction throw) 7th form

Your partner punches to your stomach with his right hand. Turn your body to the right

and grasp his fist with your left hand in the same was as Kote-gaeshi. Step back with your left

foot, bringing his hand in the same direction. Now catch his right wrist with your right hand.

Your thumb should be across the inside of his wrists so that you can push his arm straight. Step

into his arm, your left arm pushing against his elbow. Slightly lift his arm up and throw him.

Nikkyo (second principle) 8th form

Your partner catches your collar with his right hand. Step back to his right side in a

crouching position, letting his arm go over your head. You will find that his wrist is now under

your chin. Hold his right hand with your right hand and bend his elbow with your left hand. Now

bear down on his wrist with your chin. Bend your knees slightly as you do this. This completes

Nikkyo and he will submit by tapping.

Sankyo (third principle) 16th form attack

Partner holds you with his right hand around your neck. His left hand is grasping your

left wrist. Bend your body slightly forward, pushing forward with your left hand.

Step back to your left side, at the same time turning your left hip. Catch the back of his

hand with your right hand, thus applying Sankyo. Keep moving your body to your partner’s front,

your left hand catching him just above his elbow. Move your body backwards, lowering your

partner on to the mat. Kneel down with your left knee by his neck. The other knee is by his side.

Ensure that his arm is straight. Change from your right hand holding his wrist to your left. Push

your right arm down his arm bearing towards his shoulder until he submits.

Ikkyo (first principle) 7th form attack

Your partner punches to your stomach with his right fist. Step back with your left foot

towards your right corner. Your right grasps the top of his wrist. Take it in a downward

movement by bending your knees slightly. When you feel your partner resist slightly bring his

arm back into him. Your left hand should be just above his elbow pushing towards his head. Step

in with your left foot, pushing him into the mat. Make certain that his body and arm are flat on

the mat. Push his arm more than ninety degrees towards his head. Put pressure on his arm with

your arms so as to immobilise him.

Irimi-nage (enter body throw) 4th form attack

Your partner holds your lapels with his right hand. Step back to your right corner with

your left foot. Attack his face with your right hand. Follow through until your arm is under his

right hand. Swiftly turn back and with a big circle with your shoulder break his grip. At the same

time, step into his right side with your left leg. Catch his neck with your left hand. Take a big

step with your right leg so that you are in the opposite direction. Bring your partner in a wide,

smooth circle. Keep his head into your right shoulder. Your knees should be a little bent and

your shoulders relaxed so as to maintain balance. Now bring your right arm over his face and

bend his head back. Throw him to the mat. Do not bend from the waist but use your hip

movement to throw him.

Kote-gashi (small hand twist) 6th form attack

Your partner attacks the left side of your head with his right hand. Step back with your

left leg to your right rear corner.

Your left hand should be guiding his right hand. At the same time attack his face with

your spare hand. Follow through with your right hand on top of his wrist. Push his hand in a

circle in front of him whilst you move to your right. Now catch his hand with your left, with

your right hand pushing on the back of his hand, step back with your left leg and throw him.

Make sure that you keep his arm straight and project your power. The breakfall can be either

forwards or backwards. But if it is forwards roll on the side that you are thrown. Do not try to

forward roll on your left arm if you are thrown by your right.

Kokyu-nage 4th form attack

Your partner catches you by the lapels with his right hand. With his left he punches at

your face. Side-step to your right by moving your hips and head. Deflect his blow by using your

left hand, making sure that your arm is straight and that feeling is coming out of your fingers.

Now turn into his body with your right arm coming under both of his armpits. Do not try to lift

him over but lead his body down to the mat. Your left hand is still in contact with his left arm

and now lead him down to the mat.

Sankyo (third principle) 14th form attack

Your partner holds your elbows from the back. Keep your arms slightly bent and push

forward. Step back to his left side, with your body in a crouched position. Bring your right arm

over and catch the back of his left hand, making sure that your fingers are well into his palm and

your thumb against the knuckle of his thumb. Step round to his front with your left leg. Break

his grip from your elbow. Hold his elbow with your left hand and guide him on to the mat so

that he is face downwards. Kneel down, putting your right knee in the middle of his back. Your

other knee should be bent and the foot flat on the mat. Change the grip from your left to right

hand closing his wrist. Now use your left arm to pin his arm against your own body. Turn to the

right until you get the submission.

Koshi-waza (hip technique)

The hip techniques are different to those in Judo.

In Aikido, we make what we call ‘T’ form. This is not so much lifting your partner up as

using your hips as a see-saw. Imagine that the thrower is the upright part of the ‘T’ and your

partner is the cross. There are numerous techniques that one can do with Koshi-waza. But usually

these are not taught until the grade of 1st Kyu because of the special use of the hips and the

breakfalls involved. I have selected two main ones for this book. This is one of them.

Sankyo (third principle) Koshi-waza 13th form attack

Your partner holds both your wrists from behind. Moving your body into a crouched

position push your hand forward and twist them. At the same time, catch the back of his left

hand with your right in the Sankyo position. Do not worry if he is still holding your right wrist.

Now push your hips through to his right side so that you are in a ‘T’ form. The small of your

back is against his thighs below his belt. Look up at your partner. Now to throw him turn your

head to your left, your right arm following him at the same time.

Irimi-nage (enter body throw) 8th form attack

Your partner catches the back of your collar with his left hand. Attack his face with your

right hand – usually the side as in the Karate shuto techniques. He will defend against this attack

with his right arm. As you hit his arm, step into his right side with your left foot deflecting his

right arm down. Now catch his neck. Step back with your right foot making a ninety degree turn,

bringing him with you. At the end of the movement, bring your arm over his face throwing him

backwards. He should escape by a backward roll, so as not to injure himself.

Nikkyo (second principle) 12th form attack

Your partner attacks both shoulder from your front. Step back with your left foot to your

own right corner. Counter with an attack to his face. Follow through, bringing the back of your

hand down his right arm so as to break his balance. Catch the back of his hand with your right

hand and bring it back so that his little finger is uppermost.

Keep his hand close to your shoulder, your left hand bending his elbow. Now step in with

your right foot to the front of him and put pressure on his wrist. At the same time move

backwards so as to bring him face down on the mat. Kneel down with your right knee by his

neck and your left knee next to his armpit. Use your left hand under his elbow to turn it over.

Grasp his hand in the crook of your bent left arm. Bear down with your right hand on his

shoulder joint and turn your body to the right until he submits.

At all times when going back you must think about going back. When coming forward

think forward. It is no good thinking forward when you are going back or vice-versa.

Kokyu-nage, 13th form

Your partner grasps your wrists from behind. Move your body backwards and push your

hands forward. Simultaneously, twist your wrists slowly and lower your body by bending at the

knees. Escape to your partner’s side. Still pushing your power through your fingers, lower your

hands to the mat, thereby throwing your partner. This technique calls for complete harmony and

understanding between partners. If you use strength, you will make your partner resist or break

his grip.

Aiki-jyo jutso (stick technique)

Techniques against a stick are very popular in Aikido. This is one of them.

Your partner thrusts to the stomach with the end of the stick. Move to the outside – as

shown in the photo – and catch the stick with your right hand. Bring your partner round in a

circle. Then grab the centre of the stick with your left hand, bringing your right hand over your

own head. Push the stick in front of your partner’s body. Turn your own body by swivelling on

the balls of your feet and throw him backwards.

Irimi-nage (enter body throw) 7th form attack

Your partner punches your stomach with his right hand. Use your right hand to deflect

the blow. At the same time, step with your left leg into his right side.

Now catch your partner by the shoulders and push him down so as you move past his

back, bending your knees as you do so.

Kote-gaeshi (small hand twist) 5th form attack

To counter an attack to the centre of your head, turn your body to the outside, at the same

time follow his hand down with your left hand until contact with his hand is made. Your body

should be moving towards his back, bringing him in a circular movement. Make certain that you

keep your arm straight. Now change direction, stepping back with your left foot. Put the palm

of your right hand on the back of his hand. Then push his hand over with your hands thus

throwing your partner.

Ikkyo (first principle) 3rd form attack

Your partner catches your left shoulder from one side. Step back to your own right corner,

bringing your right hand up to attack his face with either a punch or a blow with the side of the

hand. Follow through brushing the back of your hand down his arm. Catch his wrist with your

right hand and place your left hand just above his face. Bring your body back and push his arm

into the mat to immobilise.

Henka-waza (combination technique)

The idea of combination techniques is to train the individual to change from one

technique to another. Thus if your partner escapes from one technique one can quickly switch

to another. Also by being able to follow him by the feel of his movement and direction,

combination techniques give you control over your partner the whole of the time.

There are many combination techniques but you will find that if your practise properly

they will come automatically through your Aikido movement. This will eventually come to you

without you thinking about them. I will give you the basic idea from 1st form Shiho-nage into

Kote-gaeshi and then into Ikkyo.

Take your partner into 1st form Shiho-nage as I have explained. Now when you are

throwing him he will make a backward breakfall, so make certain that you keep hold of his wrist

with your right hand. Now take hold of the top of his hand with your left hand. Your right hand

catches the back of his hand. At the same time, step back with your left foot, throwing him with

Kote-gaeshi. Keep hold of his hand with your left hand, your right hand coming over to grasp

his wrist. Switch your left hand grip to just above the elbow. Turn your body to the right,

throwing him in Ikkyo.

Counter techniques, 2nd form Nikkyo (second form) into Sankyo (third form)

With counter-techniques you must completely follow your partner. At no time resist his

technique, otherwise you will find that you cannot counter him. This is a very good exercise for

harmony and relaxation. Make sure that you first try to ‘give’ yourself to your partner. Do not

practise these techniques too fast until you have learnt to completely relax.

First I will describe 2nd form Nikkyo. Your partner grasps your left wrist with his right

hand. Step back with your left foot towards your right corner. Your right hand attacks your

partner’s face. Carry down his arm to grasp his right hand at the back. Now bring it up until his

little finger is uppermost and his hand is resting on your left shoulder. Your left hand should be

grasping his wrist. Now by bringing your left elbow over push down and out. So as to bend his

elbow do not stay in this position but move backwards. Bear down on his wrist. These

movements should not be done too sharply, but smoothly.

Let us assume that your partner has obtained Nikkyo on you. Go forward, pushing your

elbow into his body and turning it across his chest. Catch his thumb between your thumb and

forefinger and move your left hip out. Now you will be able to catch the back of his hand with

your own left hand in the Sankyo position. Draw his hand down to the mat. At the same time

push your left hand downwards just above the elbow, with your body moving backwards.

When you are practising these counter-throws, try to keep you mind always going

forward. If you let your mind go back it will be too late for you and his technique will win. This

is the real fight in Aikido – to try to completely give yourself to him. This lets your partner feel

that he has secured the technique and won. This lulls him back into a false sense of security and

you will be able to counter him. If you cannot control your ego and try to show that you are the

stronger by resisting him, you will lose.

Kaiten-nage (spiral throw) 2nd form left side

Your partner’s right hand grasps your left wrist. Keep your left arm straight and step with

your left foot to the left. Attack your partner’s face with your right hand. Follow down with your

right hand pushing it under your partner’s right arm. Step with your right foot so as to turn your

hips, going underneath his arm with your head coming through last. Catch the back of his head

with your right hand, your left hand grasping his wrist, and push his arm in the direction towards

his head thus throwing him. Try not to break your own balance when you throw. But if you are

off-balance, take another step forward to regain it, keeping the front leg slightly bent.

Irimi-nage (enter body throw) 15th form

Your partner catches you from the back by the shoulders. Step forward and bend slightly

to one side. On the next step bend slightly the other way. Then make a ninety degree turn into

your partner. Take your head and the arm that is furthest away from him between his two arms.

Keep moving until you feel that he is coming off-balance. Now change your direction by

stepping back with one arm coming in the direction of his head. Do not knock him down but

steadily push him. Keep your body moving backwards until he falls to the mat. Your partner

escapes with a backward ukemi.

Nikkyo (second principle) 10th form attack

Your partner grasps your right forearm with both hands, his right hand round your wrist.

Step back to your right corner with your left foot. Your right hand follows in the same direction.

Catch the finger of his right hand with your left and lock them against your arm. Make a big

circle, coming back into him with your right arm. Your hand now goes over the top of his wrist

and pushes him to his right side so as to bend his elbow. Begin to move backwards at the same

time bearing on his wrist. Bring your right hand towards your own stomach and he will crumple

on the ground. You can immobilize him as in Nikkyo 12th form.

Irimi-nage (enter body throw) 5th form attack against stick

Here is another defence against a man with a stick. It calls for perfect timing and speed

as well as relaxation. You are attacked from the front to the centre of your head. First of all look

to see which of his hands is leading. As he brings the stick to your head, move directly towards

him. Keep your body in an upright position and step with your leg into his right side. Turn your

hips and head as you step so that your chest is nearly touching his back. Your left hand catches

his neck and your right hand goes over the top of his right wrist so as to stop him bringing the

stick back. Step ninety degrees with your right foot to the rear, bringing your partner in a wide

circle. Now take his head close to your right shoulder and with your right arm coming over his

head throw him down.

I end this techniques with another of the Koshi-waza (hip techniques).

Ikkyo, 1st form (Koshi-waza)

The first part is the same as 1st form Ikkyo but instead of you pushing your partner’s arm

towards the mat, you take it over his head, pushing your hips through. Your right side is now

touching him and the small of your back is completely against his body and underneath his centre

of gravity. Keeping his arm pushed out, swivel your hips and throw your partner over.

Exercise for One Person

Often Aikidoists should supplement their Dojo training with practice at home. The

exercises I am giving here are for you to practise by yourself for the purpose of building your

Ki power, movement and balance. They are also good for relaxing your mind. Stand in left

Hamni posture, your hands having the feeling of pushing down and out. Step forward, with your

right foot turning at the same time. Repeat with your left so that now you are in the reverse

position. Do not stop dead. Repeat the movement. Keep this movement going so that you build

up a smooth and fast movement. On no account jump when you are doing this exercise. Keep

your centre of gravity down.

In the next exercise take the posture of left Hamni. Now with your arms pushing forward

and your fingers open and stretched out, keep the small of your back straight, shoulders relaxed

and head upright. As you push forward with your arms slide slightly forward and bring them

back to your side. Keep doing this until you can get someone to test you by standing in front of

you when you push out. See if they can push you back by holding your wrist. Practise this

exercise on both sides.

A website is not the same as learning from a qualified instructor these are only here as an example not for you to try without training.You must go to an akido gym to practise with an instructor

Aikido Techniques

A website is not the same as learning from a qualified instructor these are only here as an example not for you to try without training.You must go to an akido gym to practise with an instructor

Shino-nage (four direction throw). 1st form

This technique is the four direction projection as used in Japanese fencing. It involves

turning on the left and right foot and cutting in four directions. Your opponent grasps your right

wrist with his right hand. By making a spiral movement with your right hand, you then catch his

wrist. At the same time catch the back of his right hand with your left hand, breaking his balance

to his front. Do not lean backwards but keep your body slightly forward. Step through with your

left leg, keeping your legs slightly bent. Swivel on the ball of your foot and bend your opponent's

arm backwards. Throw your opponent down.

Koto-gaeshi (small hand twist). 1st form Aikido Techniques

This technique is called the small hand twist. As your opponent catches your right wrist

with his right hand, grab the top of it with your left hand and at the same time turn ninety

degrees to your right. Keep your head looking in the same direction as you are going and your

partner will come round in a semi-circle. Now change your direction, going back with your leg.

Your right hand should push on the back of his right hand, throwing him. At all times try to keep

this a smooth action and use circular not angular movements. Maintain your own balance and in

no circumstances use shoulder strength to try to force the throw.

Irimi-nage (enter body projection). 1st form Aikido Techniques

Irimi-nage is the enter body projection (throw) and is a special technique of Aikido. When

your opponent catches your right wrist with his right hand, keep your right arm straight. Step in

with your left foot into his rear side, your left hand encircling his neck. You are now the centre

of the movement, and, stepping backwards with your right foot so that he is on the outside circle

pull him into your right shoulder. Hook your right hand under his chin and throw him down.

Most of the control comes from your grip on his neck. Try not to use strength catching him,

otherwise he will resist you more easily.

Kaiten-nage (spiral throw). 1st form Aikido Techniques

This technique is a spiral throw and involsves a circular movement. All techniques of

Aikido are circular and not angular. This is important to remember. When the opponent attacks

you for 1st form, step slightly back with your left leg. Your right hand follows your body, taking

his arm over his head as you escape backwards under his arm. Keep your hand in the same

position, push forward thus making an arc. At the same time you should catch his right wrist

with your left hand. With your right hand press upon his neck and roll him forward.

Simultaneously step into him with your left foot, keeping your posture upright.

Tentchi-nage (heaven and earth throw). 1st form Aikido Techniques

This is quaintly called the heaven and earth throw. As the opponent catches your right

wrist, cut off with your left hand and at the same time step with your left leg to his right back

corner, making sure you keep your left hand straight and pointing down to the earth. The right

foot is then moved with a zig-zag step to his right rear corner. Bring your right hand arm under

his chin and with your fingers of your right hand point directly upwards and throw him down.

Keep your posture upright and your balance correct.

Ikkyo (first principle). 1st form Aikido Techniques

As the opponent catches your right wrist with his right hand, move your left leg and hip

to the rear and lead him up bringing his arm back to his hand. At the same time, your left hand

catches him just above his elbow and pushing back over his head you direct him to the floor.

Then pin him down by kneeling with your left knee on his arm-pit. Place your right knee near

his wrist. Keep your arms straight and posture upright.

Nikkyo (second principle). 1st form Aikido Techniques

The first part of this technique is the same as Ikkyo. Step backwards and lead him to the

ground. But when coming back catch his fingers that are grasping your right wrist. Then apply

the lock by bearing down on the wrist. Simultaneously, move your body backwards. This

technique can be most painful to your partner and should not be applied too quickly in the early

stages. Even at advanced levels, care must be taken. Your partner should tap to indicate

submission as is done in the other martial arts. The moment he taps you should release the

application.

Sankyo (third principle). 1st form Aikido Techniques

When the opponent grasps your right wrist with his right hand step to your left side. Turn

your body move under his right arm, at the same time take his left hand with your right. Now

twist his right hand up and to the left, keeping the palm open. Move your hips to the left. Cut

his right hand down and grasping his elbow with your right hand direct him to the floor. Apply

the lock by keeping the elbow straight and face his body when pinning him on the mat.

Yonkyo (fourth principle). 1st form Aikido Techniques

The opponent grasps your right wrist. Turn as in Sanyo and catch his right hand with your

left. Twist his wrist with your right hand and put the bottom of your left forefinger on his right

pulse. Push upwards, making sure that his elbow than his shoulder, then cut his arm down to the

ground. At the same time, step forward with the left foot. Pin him down and release on

submission.

This concludes the fundamental techniques. Throws are often achieved in Aikido by

forcing an opponent to throw himself if he is to avoid having one of his limbs dislocated. This

is why it is particularly important for the beginner to practise carefully. The beginner will learn

to avoid locks by throwing himself but this may take some time to acquire.

12. Aikido Breakfalls Aikido Techniques

Aikido Ukemi (breakfalls) are similar to those in Judo. At all times they should be soft,

and your body should be kept like a ball. But unlike Judo at no time should one hit the mat with

your hand in order to soften the shock. In Judo, we argue that if you find it necessary to use

Ukemi in the street softening the blow by hitting the ground with your arm, you will only

succeed in hurting your arm. In Aikido we learn to roll when thrown so as to recover on one's

feet.

Ukemi are important. You must remember that Aikido is not so much a sport as a fighting

art. Therefore, I believe that Ukemi are as important as other techniques. If your Ukemi become

proficient then you will follow your partner better because the fear of falling will have gone. This

will allow your mind to be calm and as the body always follows the mind in Aikido then it will

be more relaxed, giving you more speed and natural movement for your technique.

13. Aikido Posture Aikido Techniques

The posture in Aikido is in an oblique position. The reason for this is that you lessen the

area of attack and you are able to move more easily and with speed. Stand with your left foot

half a step forward as shown in the photograph. This is left Hamni. Right Hamni is the same

except that your right foot is half a step forward.

14. Advanced Aikido Techniques Aikido Techniques

Defence against a knife

Attack to the stomach

There are many ways in which you can be attacked with a knife but I am giving the most

basic technique for you to practise. With the practice of Aikido, the others will come more easily

to you.

Your partner lunges at you with the knife. Turn to the rear in a clockwise direction so that

your partner is kept moving. Step back with your left foot, at the same time catch the back of

his hand with your right hand and then throw him. As soon as he falls, lock his arm by placing

your right arm on his elbow. Walk around his head bringing him onto his stomach. Now put your

right knee on his neck and push his arm towards his head until he lets go of the knife.

Koky-nage from 11th form

Catching both of your wrists with his hands your partner comes in to you. Slightly bend

your elbows so as to break your partner's power. Step in to him to stop him from pushing you

back and kneel down. Your left hand should be pushing out and down to the mat. Your right

hand goes down to your partner's right foot and you can throw him easily. Make sure that the

small of your back is kept straight and your shoulders relaxed.

Shiho-nage (four direction) 6th form attack

Your partner attacks the side of your head. Step back to your right corner with your left

foot. Your left hand should guide his right. Your right hand attacks his face. Follow through with

your right hand, and catch his wrist with both hands then as in 1st form Shiho-nage step through

and throw him.

Nikkyo (second principle) 4th form attack

Your partner catches your wrist with his right hand. Step back to your right corner with

your left foot. Your right hand attacks his face. Follow through with the back of your hand

brushing down his arm. Your left hand catches your jacket above his hand and with your right

hand take hold under his hand. Now turn it over until his little finger is uppermost, making sure

that you keep it tight to your body. With your left elbow, bend his elbow and bear pressure on

his wrist until he submits by tapping.

Tentchi-nage (heaven and earth throw) 3rd form attack

As soon as your partner's right hand catches your shoulder, turn to your right giving him

no chance to punch you with his right hand. Try to keep contact with his arm across your back.

Now with this movement, he should be moving on the outside of you. Change your direction by

stepping back with your left foot. Your left arm comes over the top of your partner's right, with

a cutting action towards the mat. Your right foot makes a zig-zag step towards his rear and your

right arm pushes across his left shoulder. Keep your forward leg slightly bent and shoulders

relaxed.

Shiho-nage (four direction throw) 4th form

Your partner catches the front of your jacket with his right hand. Step back to your right

corner with your left foot. Attack your partner's face with your right hand. Catch his wrist with

both hands. Now use your shoulder against the inside of his elbow joint. Step through with your

left leg. Turn completely around on the balls of your feet and kneel on your left knee. Your

partner's arm should be bent backwards so as to break his balance.

Irimi-nage (enter body throw) 5th form

Your partner's right hand attacks you to the centre of your head. Using your right hand

push straight towards him so as to deflect the blow. At the same time step into his rear side with

your left foot.

Your right hand should be on top of his right hand. Now cut down his right arm and catch

his neck with your left hand. Step right around with your right foot bringing him in a circle

outside you. Pull his head into your right shoulder and throw him down by bending his head

backwards with your right arm.

Sankyo (third principle) 6th form attack

Your partner attacks the side of your head with his right hand. Guide his right hand with

your left. At the same time step back to your right corner with your left leg. Attack his face with

your right hand. Follow on down his arm to grasp his wrist. Take his arm back in the direction

of his head simultaneously stepping to his front catching the back of his hand with your left

hand. Put your fingers in the palm of his hand and place your own thumb against his. Your right

hand comes down just above his elbow and leads him to the mat.

Shino-nage (four direction throw) 7th form

Your partner punches to your stomach with his right hand. Turn your body to the right

and grasp his fist with your left hand in the same was as Kote-gaeshi. Step back with your left

foot, bringing his hand in the same direction. Now catch his right wrist with your right hand.

Your thumb should be across the inside of his wrists so that you can push his arm straight. Step

into his arm, your left arm pushing against his elbow. Slightly lift his arm up and throw him.

Nikkyo (second principle) 8th form

Your partner catches your collar with his right hand. Step back to his right side in a

crouching position, letting his arm go over your head. You will find that his wrist is now under

your chin. Hold his right hand with your right hand and bend his elbow with your left hand. Now

bear down on his wrist with your chin. Bend your knees slightly as you do this. This completes

Nikkyo and he will submit by tapping.

Sankyo (third principle) 16th form attack

Partner holds you with his right hand around your neck. His left hand is grasping your

left wrist. Bend your body slightly forward, pushing forward with your left hand.

Step back to your left side, at the same time turning your left hip. Catch the back of his

hand with your right hand, thus applying Sankyo. Keep moving your body to your partner's front,

your left hand catching him just above his elbow. Move your body backwards, lowering your

partner on to the mat. Kneel down with your left knee by his neck. The other knee is by his side.

Ensure that his arm is straight. Change from your right hand holding his wrist to your left. Push

your right arm down his arm bearing towards his shoulder until he submits.

Ikkyo (first principle) 7th form attack

Your partner punches to your stomach with his right fist. Step back with your left foot

towards your right corner. Your right grasps the top of his wrist. Take it in a downward

movement by bending your knees slightly. When you feel your partner resist slightly bring his

arm back into him. Your left hand should be just above his elbow pushing towards his head. Step

in with your left foot, pushing him into the mat. Make certain that his body and arm are flat on

the mat. Push his arm more than ninety degrees towards his head. Put pressure on his arm with

your arms so as to immobilise him.

Irimi-nage (enter body throw) 4th form attack

Your partner holds your lapels with his right hand. Step back to your right corner with

your left foot. Attack his face with your right hand. Follow through until your arm is under his

right hand. Swiftly turn back and with a big circle with your shoulder break his grip. At the same

time, step into his right side with your left leg. Catch his neck with your left hand. Take a big

step with your right leg so that you are in the opposite direction. Bring your partner in a wide,

smooth circle. Keep his head into your right shoulder. Your knees should be a little bent and

your shoulders relaxed so as to maintain balance. Now bring your right arm over his face and

bend his head back. Throw him to the mat. Do not bend from the waist but use your hip

movement to throw him.

Kote-gashi (small hand twist) 6th form attack

Your partner attacks the left side of your head with his right hand. Step back with your

left leg to your right rear corner.

Your left hand should be guiding his right hand. At the same time attack his face with

your spare hand. Follow through with your right hand on top of his wrist. Push his hand in a

circle in front of him whilst you move to your right. Now catch his hand with your left, with

your right hand pushing on the back of his hand, step back with your left leg and throw him.

Make sure that you keep his arm straight and project your power. The breakfall can be either

forwards or backwards. But if it is forwards roll on the side that you are thrown. Do not try to

forward roll on your left arm if you are thrown by your right.

Kokyu-nage 4th form attack

Your partner catches you by the lapels with his right hand. With his left he punches at

your face. Side-step to your right by moving your hips and head. Deflect his blow by using your

left hand, making sure that your arm is straight and that feeling is coming out of your fingers.

Now turn into his body with your right arm coming under both of his armpits. Do not try to lift

him over but lead his body down to the mat. Your left hand is still in contact with his left arm

and now lead him down to the mat.

Sankyo (third principle) 14th form attack

Your partner holds your elbows from the back. Keep your arms slightly bent and push

forward. Step back to his left side, with your body in a crouched position. Bring your right arm

over and catch the back of his left hand, making sure that your fingers are well into his palm and

your thumb against the knuckle of his thumb. Step round to his front with your left leg. Break

his grip from your elbow. Hold his elbow with your left hand and guide him on to the mat so

that he is face downwards. Kneel down, putting your right knee in the middle of his back. Your

other knee should be bent and the foot flat on the mat. Change the grip from your left to right

hand closing his wrist. Now use your left arm to pin his arm against your own body. Turn to the

right until you get the submission.

Koshi-waza (hip technique)

The hip techniques are different to those in Judo.

In Aikido, we make what we call 'T' form. This is not so much lifting your partner up as

using your hips as a see-saw. Imagine that the thrower is the upright part of the 'T' and your

partner is the cross. There are numerous techniques that one can do with Koshi-waza. But usually

these are not taught until the grade of 1st Kyu because of the special use of the hips and the

breakfalls involved. I have selected two main ones for this book. This is one of them.

Sankyo (third principle) Koshi-waza 13th form attack

Your partner holds both your wrists from behind. Moving your body into a crouched

position push your hand forward and twist them. At the same time, catch the back of his left

hand with your right in the Sankyo position. Do not worry if he is still holding your right wrist.

Now push your hips through to his right side so that you are in a 'T' form. The small of your

back is against his thighs below his belt. Look up at your partner. Now to throw him turn your

head to your left, your right arm following him at the same time.

Irimi-nage (enter body throw) 8th form attack

Your partner catches the back of your collar with his left hand. Attack his face with your

right hand - usually the side as in the Karate shuto techniques. He will defend against this attack

with his right arm. As you hit his arm, step into his right side with your left foot deflecting his

right arm down. Now catch his neck. Step back with your right foot making a ninety degree turn,

bringing him with you. At the end of the movement, bring your arm over his face throwing him

backwards. He should escape by a backward roll, so as not to injure himself.

Nikkyo (second principle) 12th form attack

Your partner attacks both shoulder from your front. Step back with your left foot to your

own right corner. Counter with an attack to his face. Follow through, bringing the back of your

hand down his right arm so as to break his balance. Catch the back of his hand with your right

hand and bring it back so that his little finger is uppermost.

Keep his hand close to your shoulder, your left hand bending his elbow. Now step in with

your right foot to the front of him and put pressure on his wrist. At the same time move

backwards so as to bring him face down on the mat. Kneel down with your right knee by his

neck and your left knee next to his armpit. Use your left hand under his elbow to turn it over.

Grasp his hand in the crook of your bent left arm. Bear down with your right hand on his

shoulder joint and turn your body to the right until he submits.

At all times when going back you must think about going back. When coming forward

think forward. It is no good thinking forward when you are going back or vice-versa.

Kokyu-nage, 13th form

Your partner grasps your wrists from behind. Move your body backwards and push your

hands forward. Simultaneously, twist your wrists slowly and lower your body by bending at the

knees. Escape to your partner's side. Still pushing your power through your fingers, lower your

hands to the mat, thereby throwing your partner. This technique calls for complete harmony and

understanding between partners. If you use strength, you will make your partner resist or break

his grip.

Aiki-jyo jutso (stick technique)

Techniques against a stick are very popular in Aikido. This is one of them.

Your partner thrusts to the stomach with the end of the stick. Move to the outside - as

shown in the photo - and catch the stick with your right hand. Bring your partner round in a

circle. Then grab the centre of the stick with your left hand, bringing your right hand over your

own head. Push the stick in front of your partner's body. Turn your own body by swivelling on

the balls of your feet and throw him backwards.

Irimi-nage (enter body throw) 7th form attack

Your partner punches your stomach with his right hand. Use your right hand to deflect

the blow. At the same time, step with your left leg into his right side.

Now catch your partner by the shoulders and push him down so as you move past his

back, bending your knees as you do so.

Kote-gaeshi (small hand twist) 5th form attack

To counter an attack to the centre of your head, turn your body to the outside, at the same

time follow his hand down with your left hand until contact with his hand is made. Your body

should be moving towards his back, bringing him in a circular movement. Make certain that you

keep your arm straight. Now change direction, stepping back with your left foot. Put the palm

of your right hand on the back of his hand. Then push his hand over with your hands thus

throwing your partner.

Ikkyo (first principle) 3rd form attack

Your partner catches your left shoulder from one side. Step back to your own right corner,

bringing your right hand up to attack his face with either a punch or a blow with the side of the

hand. Follow through brushing the back of your hand down his arm. Catch his wrist with your

right hand and place your left hand just above his face. Bring your body back and push his arm

into the mat to immobilise.

Henka-waza (combination technique)

The idea of combination techniques is to train the individual to change from one

technique to another. Thus if your partner escapes from one technique one can quickly switch

to another. Also by being able to follow him by the feel of his movement and direction,

combination techniques give you control over your partner the whole of the time.

There are many combination techniques but you will find that if your practise properly

they will come automatically through your Aikido movement. This will eventually come to you

without you thinking about them. I will give you the basic idea from 1st form Shiho-nage into

Kote-gaeshi and then into Ikkyo.

Take your partner into 1st form Shiho-nage as I have explained. Now when you are

throwing him he will make a backward breakfall, so make certain that you keep hold of his wrist

with your right hand. Now take hold of the top of his hand with your left hand. Your right hand

catches the back of his hand. At the same time, step back with your left foot, throwing him with

Kote-gaeshi. Keep hold of his hand with your left hand, your right hand coming over to grasp

his wrist. Switch your left hand grip to just above the elbow. Turn your body to the right,

throwing him in Ikkyo.

Counter techniques, 2nd form Nikkyo (second form) into Sankyo (third form)

With counter-techniques you must completely follow your partner. At no time resist his

technique, otherwise you will find that you cannot counter him. This is a very good exercise for

harmony and relaxation. Make sure that you first try to 'give' yourself to your partner. Do not

practise these techniques too fast until you have learnt to completely relax.

First I will describe 2nd form Nikkyo. Your partner grasps your left wrist with his right

hand. Step back with your left foot towards your right corner. Your right hand attacks your

partner's face. Carry down his arm to grasp his right hand at the back. Now bring it up until his

little finger is uppermost and his hand is resting on your left shoulder. Your left hand should be

grasping his wrist. Now by bringing your left elbow over push down and out. So as to bend his

elbow do not stay in this position but move backwards. Bear down on his wrist. These

movements should not be done too sharply, but smoothly.

Let us assume that your partner has obtained Nikkyo on you. Go forward, pushing your

elbow into his body and turning it across his chest. Catch his thumb between your thumb and

forefinger and move your left hip out. Now you will be able to catch the back of his hand with

your own left hand in the Sankyo position. Draw his hand down to the mat. At the same time

push your left hand downwards just above the elbow, with your body moving backwards.

When you are practising these counter-throws, try to keep you mind always going

forward. If you let your mind go back it will be too late for you and his technique will win. This

is the real fight in Aikido - to try to completely give yourself to him. This lets your partner feel

that he has secured the technique and won. This lulls him back into a false sense of security and

you will be able to counter him. If you cannot control your ego and try to show that you are the

stronger by resisting him, you will lose.

Kaiten-nage (spiral throw) 2nd form left side

Your partner's right hand grasps your left wrist. Keep your left arm straight and step with

your left foot to the left. Attack your partner's face with your right hand. Follow down with your

right hand pushing it under your partner's right arm. Step with your right foot so as to turn your

hips, going underneath his arm with your head coming through last. Catch the back of his head

with your right hand, your left hand grasping his wrist, and push his arm in the direction towards

his head thus throwing him. Try not to break your own balance when you throw. But if you are

off-balance, take another step forward to regain it, keeping the front leg slightly bent.

Irimi-nage (enter body throw) 15th form

Your partner catches you from the back by the shoulders. Step forward and bend slightly

to one side. On the next step bend slightly the other way. Then make a ninety degree turn into

your partner. Take your head and the arm that is furthest away from him between his two arms.

Keep moving until you feel that he is coming off-balance. Now change your direction by

stepping back with one arm coming in the direction of his head. Do not knock him down but

steadily push him. Keep your body moving backwards until he falls to the mat. Your partner

escapes with a backward ukemi.

Nikkyo (second principle) 10th form attack

Your partner grasps your right forearm with both hands, his right hand round your wrist.

Step back to your right corner with your left foot. Your right hand follows in the same direction.

Catch the finger of his right hand with your left and lock them against your arm. Make a big

circle, coming back into him with your right arm. Your hand now goes over the top of his wrist

and pushes him to his right side so as to bend his elbow. Begin to move backwards at the same

time bearing on his wrist. Bring your right hand towards your own stomach and he will crumple

on the ground. You can immobilize him as in Nikkyo 12th form.

Irimi-nage (enter body throw) 5th form attack against stick

Here is another defence against a man with a stick. It calls for perfect timing and speed

as well as relaxation. You are attacked from the front to the centre of your head. First of all look

to see which of his hands is leading. As he brings the stick to your head, move directly towards

him. Keep your body in an upright position and step with your leg into his right side. Turn your

hips and head as you step so that your chest is nearly touching his back. Your left hand catches

his neck and your right hand goes over the top of his right wrist so as to stop him bringing the

stick back. Step ninety degrees with your right foot to the rear, bringing your partner in a wide

circle. Now take his head close to your right shoulder and with your right arm coming over his

head throw him down.

I end this techniques with another of the Koshi-waza (hip techniques).

Ikkyo, 1st form (Koshi-waza)

The first part is the same as 1st form Ikkyo but instead of you pushing your partner's arm

towards the mat, you take it over his head, pushing your hips through. Your right side is now

touching him and the small of your back is completely against his body and underneath his centre

of gravity. Keeping his arm pushed out, swivel your hips and throw your partner over.

Exercise for One Person

Often Aikidoists should supplement their Dojo training with practice at home. The

exercises I am giving here are for you to practise by yourself for the purpose of building your

Ki power, movement and balance. They are also good for relaxing your mind. Stand in left

Hamni posture, your hands having the feeling of pushing down and out. Step forward, with your

right foot turning at the same time. Repeat with your left so that now you are in the reverse

position. Do not stop dead. Repeat the movement. Keep this movement going so that you build

up a smooth and fast movement. On no account jump when you are doing this exercise. Keep

your centre of gravity down.

In the next exercise take the posture of left Hamni. Now with your arms pushing forward

and your fingers open and stretched out, keep the small of your back straight, shoulders relaxed

and head upright. As you push forward with your arms slide slightly forward and bring them

back to your side. Keep doing this until you can get someone to test you by standing in front of

you when you push out. See if they can push you back by holding your wrist. Practise this

exercise on both sides. A website is not the same as learning from a qualified instructor these are only here as an example not for you to try without training.You must go to an akido gym to practise with an instructor
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